Über Indianersprachen. Wer Mattiolis Buch gelesen hat, blickt anders auf die Geschichte der USA. «Die Zerstörung des indianischen. Es ist das erste Mal in der Geschichte, dass ein Indianer diesen Vorsitz innehat. Inwieweit dadurch die auch heute noch nicht beendete Kontroverse darüber. Indianer ist die im Deutschen verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Amerikas bzw. deren Angehörige. Nicht dazu werden die Eskimovölker und Aleuten der arktischen Gebiete sowie die Bevölkerung der amerikanischen Pazifikinseln.
Indianer - 3,5 bis 4 Millionen leben in NordamerikaÜber Indianersprachen. Wer Mattiolis Buch gelesen hat, blickt anders auf die Geschichte der USA. «Die Zerstörung des indianischen. Ebenfalls nicht zu den Indianern gezählt werden „Misch“-Ethnien wie die kanadischen Métis oder die Genízaros im Süden der USA. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1. Indianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Indianerreservat der USA inne und sind zahlenmäßig die größte indianische Nation.
Indianer Usa Navigation menu VideoIndianer - Die großen Stämme Nordamerikas (Dokumentation) Jahrhundert der wirtschaftliche Schwerpunkt auf den Spiele Per Lastschrift Kaufen verlagerte. Daher kann man aus archäologischen Analysen der östlichen Waldländer unter Berücksichtigung von ökologischen Aspekten und Speisegelatine Brunch Sonderfaktoren eine Schätzung von zwischen 2,8 und 5,7 Millionen Menschen für Nordamerika im Jahr ableiten. Die Nazca-Kultur wurde stark von der Paracas-Kultur beeinflusst, von denen sie auch diverse Schädelmanipulationstechniken und die Kunst des Anlegens von riesigen Scharrbildern übernahmen siehe Nazca-Linien. USA Apache Arapaho Blackfoot (siksika) Cherokee Cheyenne Hopi Irokesförbundet Kaliforniens indianer Kiowa Mahican (Mohican) Mohegan Natchez Powhatan Sioux Wampanoager Zuni. Canada Chipewyan Eskimo Haida Haisla Micmac [ Startsidan ]. Amerikas oprindelige folk (indianere og inuitter) er de folkeslag som har beboet de amerikanske kontinenter fra før den europæiske kolonisering.. Den første befolkning af det amerikanske kontinent skete formentlig for ca. år siden da jæger-samler grupper krydsede Bering-landbroen i den sidste del af fcolombofilagalega.com hurtigt spredtes disse første befolkninger sig gennem. July 7, Indiana University Newsroom. Archived Joindota League the original on September 19,
According to the official U. In previous decades, Indian Americans were also variously classified as White American , the "Hindu race", and "other".
Unlike many countries, India does not allow dual citizenship. Raghuram Rajan . In the s, a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City, New Jersey with violence and harassment.
Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus mainly of Indian origin have also been documented.
Since the September 11, attacks , there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes.
In one example, a Sikh , Balbir Singh Sodhi , was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist. This happened after September 11 , and the murderer claimed that his turban made him think that the victim was a Middle Eastern American.
Louis , fueling the stereotype that gas stations are owned by Indians and other South Asians. She clarified in the speech later that she was just joking, but still received some criticism for the statement later on for which she apologized again.
On April 5, , the Hindu Mandir of Minnesota was vandalized allegedly on the basis of religious discrimination. On August 11, , Senator George Allen allegedly referred to an opponent's political staffer of Indian ancestry as " macaca " and commenting, "Welcome to America, to the real world of Virginia".
In , then Delaware Senator and former U. You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent.
I'm not joking. On February 22, , recent immigrants Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani were shot at a bar in Olathe, Kansas by Adam Purinton, a white American who mistook them for persons of Middle Eastern descent, yelling "get out of my country" and "terrorist".
Kuchibhotla died instantly while Madasani was injured, but later recovered. Indians are among the largest ethnic groups legally immigrating to the United States.
The immigration of Indians has taken place in several waves since the first Indian came to the United States in the s.
Another significant wave followed in the s which mainly included students and professionals. The elimination of immigration quotas in spurred successively larger waves of immigrants in the late s and early s.
With the technology boom of the s, the largest influx of Indians arrived between and This latter group has also caused surge in the application for various immigration benefits including applications for green card.
This has resulted in long waiting periods for people born in India from receiving these benefits. As of , over , Indians were on the visa wait list, third only to Mexico and The Philippines.
Conflicting reports suggested that the students were deported because of the controversies surrounding the above-mentioned two universities.
However, another report suggested that the students were deported as they had provided conflicting information at the time of their arrival in US to what was mentioned in their visa application.
Following the incident, the Indian government asked the US government to honour the visas given by its embassies and consulates.
Although Indian Americans have the highest average and median household income of any demographic group in America, there exist significant and severe income disparities among various communities of Indian Americans.
In , the Department of Homeland Security estimated that there were , Indian unauthorized immigrants ; they are the sixth largest nationality tied with Koreans of illegal immigrants behind Mexico , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , and the Philippines.
Bobby Jindal was the 58th Governor of Louisiana and a former representative. Representative Pramila Jayapal from Washington.
Representative Raja Krishnamoorthi from Illinois. A majority tend to identify as moderates and have voted for Democrats in recent elections, in particular supporting Barack Obama in vast numbers.
Raja Krishnamoorthi who is a lawyer, engineer and community leader from Schaumburg, Illinois has been the Congressman representing Illinois's 8th congressional district since If elected, she will be the first Indian American woman elected to the state legislature in New York history.
Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indian American. For people from India, see Indian people.
For people from the Indian subcontinent, see South Asians. Not to be confused with Native Americans in the United States.
Americans of Indian birth or descent. See also: Asian immigration to the United States. See also: Indians in the New York City metropolitan region.
See also: Contribution of Indian diaspora and Indianisation. Norah Jones is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.
Indian religions in US. Further information: Hinduism in the United States. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Sikhism in the United States.
Further information: Jainism in the United States. Further information: Islam in the United States. Main article: Racial classification of Indian Americans.
See also: Stereotypes of South Asians. Main article: List of Indian American media. Representative Ami Bera from California.
Representative Ro Khanna from California. Main article: List of Indian-Americans. United States portal India portal. Census Bureau. December Retrieved March 20, Retrieved November 9, Welcome to America".
October 21, Archived from the original on December 13, — via www. Pew Forum. July 19, Retrieved August 11, July 18, Archived from the original on September 4, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies.
June 1, A category that remains contested in population and health research". Journal of Public Health. The United States Census Bureau.
Indian Americans Part 1. Retrieved September 29, Schaefer March 20, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society.
SAGE Publications. Pennsylvania State University Press. Oxford University Press. Indians in North America, nearly 90 percent of whom where Sikhs from the state of Punjab, were also racialized through colonial gendered discourses.
University of Arkansas Press. Retrieved February 7, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved December 9, Indian Americans Hardcover ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Retrieved December 30, Jersey City Independent. Archived from the original on June 30, Other notable powers include calling out the Indiana Guard Reserve or the Indiana National Guard in times of emergency or disaster, issuing pardons or commuting the sentence of any criminal offenders except in cases of treason or impeachment and possessing an abundant amount of statutory authority.
The lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Senate and ensures the senate rules are acted in accordance with by its constituents.
The lieutenant governor votes only when needed to break ties. If the governor dies in office, becomes permanently incapacitated, resigns or is impeached, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.
If both the governor and lieutenant governor positions are unoccupied, the Senate President pro tempore becomes governor. The Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly and the House of Representatives is the lower house.
Both the Senate and the House can introduce legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not authorized to initiate legislation that will affect revenue.
Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but both houses must pass them before they can be submitted to the Governor.
The General Assembly has no authority to create legislation that targets a particular community.
It also can oversee the activities of the executive branch of the state government, has restricted power to regulate the county governments within the state, and has exclusive power to initiate the method to alter the Indiana Constitution.
The governor selects judges for the supreme and appeal courts from a group of applicants chosen by a special commission. After serving for two years, the judges must acquire the support of the electorate to serve for a year term.
Local circuit courts are where most cases begin with a trial and the consequence is decided by the jury. The Supreme Court has original and sole jurisdiction in certain areas including the practice of law, discipline or disbarment of Judges appointed to the lower state courts, and supervision over the exercise of jurisdiction by the other lower courts of the State.
The state is divided into 92 counties , which are led by a board of county commissioners. The remaining two counties, Dearborn and Ohio, are combined into one circuit.
Many counties operate superior courts in addition to the circuit court. In densely populated counties where the caseload is traditionally greater, separate courts have been established to solely hear either juvenile, criminal, probate or small claims cases.
The establishment, frequency and jurisdiction of these additional courts varies greatly from county to county. There are 85 city and town courts in Indiana municipalities, created by local ordinance, typically handling minor offenses and not considered courts of record.
County officials elected to four-year terms include an auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner and clerk of the circuit court.
All incorporated cities in Indiana have a mayor and council form of municipal government. Towns are governed by a town council and townships are governed by a township trustee and advisory board.
Among individual categories, Indiana ranked above average in budget transparency 1 , government digitization 6 , and fiscal stability 8 , and ranked average in state integrity From to , a resident of Indiana was included in all but one presidential election.
Indiana Representative William Hayden English was nominated for vice president and ran with Winfield Scott Hancock in the election.
Hendricks was elected vice president in He served until his death on November 25, , under President Grover Cleveland. He remains the only President from Indiana.
Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks was elected vice president in , serving under President Theodore Roosevelt until Marshall , who served as vice president from until Indiana has long been considered a Republican stronghold,   particularly in Presidential races.
Indiana was one of only ten states to support Republican Wendell Willkie in Bush won the state by a wide margin while the election was much closer overall.
The state has supported a Democrat for president only five times since Twenty years later, Franklin D. Roosevelt won the state again in Johnson over Republican Barry Goldwater.
While only five Democratic presidential nominees have carried Indiana since , 11 Democrats were elected governor during that time.
Before Mitch Daniels became governor in , Democrats had held the office for 16 consecutive years. Indiana elects two senators and nine representatives to Congress.
The state has 11 electoral votes in presidential elections. Historically, Republicans have been strongest in the eastern and central portions of the state, while Democrats have been strongest in the northwestern part of the state.
Occasionally, certain counties in the southern part of the state will vote Democratic. Marion County, Indiana's most populous county, supported the Republican candidates from to , before backing the Democrats in the , , , and elections.
Indiana's second-most populous county, Lake County, strongly supports the Democratic party and has not voted for a Republican since Five Indiana cities were mentioned in the study.
On the liberal side, Gary was ranked second and South Bend came in at Among conservative cities, Fort Wayne was 44th, Evansville was 60th and Indianapolis was 82nd on the list.
Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division , approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington , which is the third largest naval installation in the world, comprising approximately square miles of territory.
The Army's Newport Chemical Depot , which is now closed and turning into a coal purifier plant. Indiana was formerly home to two major military installations; Grissom Air Force Base near Peru realigned to an Air Force Reserve installation in and Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, now closed, though the Department of Defense continues to operate a large finance center there Defense Finance and Accounting Service.
Indiana has an extensive history with auto racing. The name of the race is usually shortened to "Indy " and also goes by the nickname "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing".
The race attracts more than , people every year, making it the largest single day sporting event in the world.
Indiana is also host to a major unlimited hydroplane racing power boat race circuits in the major H1 Unlimited league, the Madison Regatta Madison, Indiana.
Muncie has produced the most per capita of any American city, with two other Indiana cities in the top ten. Although James Naismith developed basketball in Springfield , Massachusetts in , high school basketball was born in Indiana.
In , Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15, screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the center of the sport.
Indianapolis is home to the Indianapolis Colts. The Colts have roots back to as the Dayton Triangles. They became an official team after moving to Baltimore , MD , in In , the Colts relocated to Indianapolis, leading to an eventual rivalry with the Baltimore Ravens.
While in Baltimore, the Colts won the Super Bowl. In recent years the Colts have regularly competed in the NFL playoffs. The following table shows the professional sports teams in Indiana.
Teams in italic are in major professional leagues. The Purdue Boilermakers were selected as the national champions in before the creation of the tournament, and have won 23 Big Ten championships.
The Boilermakers along with the Notre Dame Fighting Irish have both won a national championship in women's basketball. Pioneer Football League.
Missouri Valley Football Conference. Big Ten Conference men's ice hockey. Independent football. Summit League men's swimming, men's tennis.
Southland Bowling League women's bowling. In , Indiana had a civilian labor force of nearly 3. Indiana has an unemployment rate of 3.
Despite its reliance on manufacturing, Indiana has been less affected by declines in traditional Rust Belt manufactures than many of its neighbors.
The explanation appears to be certain factors in the labor market. First, much of the heavy manufacturing, such as industrial machinery and steel, requires highly skilled labor, and firms are often willing to locate where hard-to-train skills already exist.
Second, Indiana's labor force is primarily in medium-sized and smaller cities rather than in very large and expensive metropolises.
This makes it possible for firms to offer somewhat lower wages for these skills than would normally be paid.
Firms often see in Indiana a chance to obtain higher than average skills at lower than average wages. Northwest Indiana has been the largest steel producing center in the U.
Indiana is home to the international headquarters and research facilities of pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in Indianapolis, the state's largest corporation, as well as the world headquarters of Mead Johnson Nutritionals in Evansville.
Indiana is within the U. Corn Belt and Grain Belt. The state has a feedlot-style system raising corn to fatten hogs and cattle.
Along with corn, soybeans are also a major cash crop. Its proximity to large urban centers, such as Indianapolis and Chicago, assure dairying, egg production, and specialty horticulture occur.
Other crops include melons, tomatoes, grapes, mint, popping corn, and tobacco in the southern counties.
Many parcels of woodland remain and support a furniture-making sector in the southern portion of the state.
In Indiana was ranked first in the Midwest and sixth in the country for best places to do business according to CEO magazine. Tax is collected by the Indiana Department of Revenue.
Indiana has a flat state income tax rate of 3. Many of the state's counties also collect income tax. Property taxes are imposed on both real and personal property in Indiana and are administered by the Department of Local Government Finance.
Property is subject to taxation by a variety of taxing units schools, counties, townships, municipalities, and libraries , making the total tax rate the sum of the tax rates imposed by all taxing units in which a property is located.
Indiana does not have a legal requirement to balance the state budget either in law or its constitution. Instead, it has a constitutional ban on assuming debt.
The state has a Rainy Day Fund and for healthy reserves proportional to spending. Indiana is one of six US states to not allow a line-item veto.
Since , Indiana has been one of a few states to hold AAA bond credit ratings with the Big Three credit rating agencies, the highest possible rating.
Indiana's power production chiefly consists of the consumption of fossil fuels, mainly coal. It has 24 coal power plants, including the country's largest coal power plant, Gibson Generating Station , across the Wabash River from Mount Carmel, Illinois.
Indiana is also home to the coal-fired plant with the highest sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States, the Gallagher power plant, just west of New Albany.
While Indiana has made commitments to increasing use of renewable resources such as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, or solar power, progress has been very slow, mainly because of the continued abundance of coal in southern Indiana.
Most of the new plants in the state have been coal gasification plants. Another source is hydroelectric power.
Wind power has been developed. Estimates in raised Indiana's wind capacity from 30 MW at 50 m turbine height to 40, MW at 70 m, and to , MW at m, in , the height of newer turbines.
Indianapolis International Airport serves the greater Indianapolis area. It opened in November and offers a midfield passenger terminal, concourses, air traffic control tower, parking garage, and airfield and apron improvements.
No airlines operate out of Terre Haute Regional Airport but it is used for private planes. The major U. The various highways intersecting in and around Indianapolis , along with its historical status as a major railroad hub, and the canals that once crossed Indiana, are the source of the state's motto, the Crossroads of America.
There are also many U. These are numbered according to the same convention as U. Indiana allows highways of different classifications to have the same number.
For example, I and Indiana State Road 64 both exist rather close to each other in Indiana, but are two distinct roads with no relation to one another.
The project was divided into six sections, with the first five sections linking Evansville to Martinsville now complete.
The sixth and final phase to Indianapolis is in planning. Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the older arbitrary system of road numbers and names, and among other things makes it much easier to identify the sources of calls placed to the system.
Such systems are easier to implement in the glacially flattened northern and central portions of the state.
Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have grids and more likely to rely on unsystematic road names for example, Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott, and Washington Counties.
There are also counties in northern portions of the state that have never implemented a grid, or have only partially implemented one.
Some counties are also laid out in an almost diamond-like grid system e. Such a system is also almost useless in those situations as well.
Knox County once operated two different grid systems for county roads because the county was laid out using two different survey grids, but has since decided to use road names and combine roads instead.
Notably, the county road grid system of St. Joseph County, whose major city is South Bend, uses perennial tree names i. Ash, Hickory, Ironwood, etc.
There are exceptions to this rule in downtown South Bend and Mishawaka. Hamilton county just continues the numbered street system from downtown Indianapolis from 96th Street at the Marion County line to th street at the Tipton County line.
The remaining miles are operated by 37 regional, local, and switching and terminal railroads. The South Shore Line is one of the country's most notable commuter rail systems, extending from Chicago to South Bend.
Indiana is implementing an extensive rail plan prepared in by the Parsons Corporation. In Evansville , three public and several private port facilities receive year-round service from five major barge lines operating on the Ohio River.
Evansville has been a U. Customs Port of Entry for more than years. Because of this, it is possible to have international cargo shipped to Evansville in bond.
The international cargo can then clear Customs in Evansville rather than a coastal port. Indiana's constitution was the first in the country to implement a state-funded public school system.
It also allotted one township for a public university. In the s, Caleb Mills pressed the need for tax-supported schools, and in his advice was included in the new state constitution.
In the Legislature ruled that African Americans could not attend the public schools, leading to the foundation of Union Literary Institute and other schools for them, funded by donations or the students themselves.
Although the growth of the public school system was held up by legal entanglements, many public elementary schools were in use by Most children in Indiana attend public schools, but nearly ten percent attend private schools and parochial schools.
About half of all college students in Indiana are enrolled in state-supported four-year schools. Indiana public schools have gone through several changes throughout Indiana's history.
Modern, public school standards, have been implemented all throughout the state. These new standards were adopted in April The overall goal of these new state standards is to ensure Indiana students have the necessary skills and requirements needed to enter college or the workforce upon high school graduation.
In , the Indiana Department of Education reported that the state's overall graduation rates were The largest educational institution is Indiana University , the flagship campus of which was endorsed as Indiana Seminary in Indiana State University was established as the state's Normal School in ; Purdue University was chartered as a land-grant college in Many of Indiana's private colleges and universities are affiliated with religious groups.
The state's community college system, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana , serves nearly , students annually, making it the state's largest public post-secondary educational institution and the nation's largest singly accredited statewide community college system.
The state has several universities ranked among the best in rankings of the U. Purdue's engineering programs are ranked eighth in the country.
In addition, Taylor University is ranked first in the Regional College Midwest Rankings and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology has been considered the top Undergraduate Engineering school where a doctorate is not offered for 15 consecutive years.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 December State of the midwest United States.
This article is about the State of Indiana. For other uses, see Indiana disambiguation. For the passenger train, see Hoosier State train.
Omkring fvt. I det Denne isolation i og ved Beringlandbroen kan have varet mellem I blev autosomal DNA af et barn, som er mindst Implikationen her er, at der var en tidlig divergens mellem befolkningerne mellem nordlige og centrale og sydlige Amerika.
I var der omkring Forskningen antyder, at hovedgrunden var epidemiske sygdomme. En tredje ekspedition forlod Panama i Alligevel valgte Pizarro at skille sig af med Atahualpa.
Oprindelige folk i Mexico har ret til fri selvbestemmelse under anden artikel i landets lovgivning. I henhold til disse er oprindelige folk givet:.
I boede der I dag er der i Belize omkring 6. Amazonasregionen i Colombia er sparsomt befolket, men mere end 70 forskellige oprindelige stammer har tilholdssted her.
Det er antaget, at flere millioner i 2. Mange blev assimileret i den brede brasilianske befolkning. I dag er der omkring stammer, og henved forskellige oprindelige sprog tales, fem af dem har mere end Der Erfolg hing dann sehr vom persönlichen Geschick, dem kulturellen Einfühlungsvermögen und der Integrationsbereitschaft des jeweiligen Missionars ab.
Vielfach bedienten sich die Kirchenleute indigener Prediger und Katecheten als Helfer. Diese Praxis hatte zur Folge, dass die christliche Botschaft zum Teil stark verfälscht bzw.
Tatsächlich waren die Europäer den Indianern militärisch und technologisch überlegen. Dieses Bild rührte sowohl von frühen Berichten europäischer Seefahrer her, aber auch von freiwilligen oder erzwungenen Besuchen der Indianer in Europa.
Etwa zur selben Zeit brachte Sebastian Cabot die ersten nordamerikanischen Indianer als Attraktionen an die englischen Höfe und Jacques Cartier die ersten an die französischen Höfe.
Gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts wandelte sich das europäische Bild der Indianer ins Gegenteil. Eigenschaften, welche die Indianer von den Europäern unterschieden, wurden nun nicht mehr negativ, sondern positiv interpretiert.
So sahen die Europäer die Indianer nicht mehr als primitiv, faul und kindlich unvernünftig an, sondern als anspruchslos, ruhig und unschuldig.
Vom Jahrhundert bis in die erste Hälfte des Jahrhunderts begann sich allmählich ein differenzierteres Bild durchzusetzen.
Bereits früher waren indianische Organisationen entstanden, die allerdings nicht bei allen Stämmen Unterstützung fanden.
Er verstand es als seine Aufgabe, in der amerikanischen Bevölkerung Öffentlichkeitsarbeit zum besseren Verständnis der indianischen Kultur und Situation zu leisten und sich für die Bewahrung der traditionellen kulturellen Werte einzusetzen.
Mit den Jahren stieg die Unzufriedenheit insbesondere unter den jüngeren Mitgliedern. Viele Indianer waren enttäuscht über das langsame Vorgehen des Kongresses.
Letztere in den Städten entstandene Bewegung sorgte Ende der er und anfangs der er Jahre mit ihren zum Teil recht militanten Aktionen für Schlagzeilen.
Nach 19 Monaten brachen die Indianer ihre Besetzung ab. Diese war und ist für die dort lebenden Lakota von geschichtsträchtiger Bedeutung.
Rund bewaffnete Indianer protestierten so gegen die korrupte Stammesregierung unter Richard Wilson. Die Besetzung dauerte 71 Tage.
Er gewann kontinuierlich an Einfluss. Vereinte er rund 2. Ihr Ziel ist es, die Traditionen der Indianer zu bewahren und deren Selbstbestimmungsrecht zu erlangen.
So entstand die Organisation Incomindios Schweiz , die indigenen Vertretern unter anderem ermöglicht, jährlich während einer Woche in Genf an der UNO ihre Probleme zu schildern und ihre Forderungen zu stellen.
Auch im Jahrhundert kämpfen einige indianische Gruppen um ihre Rechte von Norden nach Süden :. Die Indianerpolitik der Vereinigten Staaten war bis zur Mitte der er Jahre stark auf kulturelle Anpassung und Eingliederung ausgerichtet.
Sie dürfen sowohl in zivilrechtlicher wie auch in strafrechtlicher Hinsicht Gesetze und Bestimmungen erlassen, Konzessionen erteilen oder Menschen aus ihrem Hoheitsgebiet ausweisen.
Für die Verwaltung von Die Zahl der anerkannten Indianer wächst schnell; der Anteil der in Städten lebenden Indianer noch schneller. Heute haben acht von zehn Personen mit indianischer Abstammung auch nicht-indianische Vorfahren und Ausgrenzungen und Benachteiligungen gehören weitgehend der Vergangenheit an.
Weitere 1,6 Millionen gaben an, teilweise indianischer Abstammung zu sein. Die US-Indianer besitzen rund Diese Zahl ist aufgrund von Landstreitigkeiten umstritten.
Allerdings definiert jeder Stamm seine Mitglieder unterschiedlich. Die Cherokee handhaben ihre Mitgliedschaft wesentlich einfacher.
Um als Cherokee zu gelten, muss man belegen können, dass ein Vorfahre auf der Dawes-Liste geführt ist. Die Dawes-Liste entstand von bis und registrierte alle Indianer der fünf zivilisierten Nationen.
Etliche kleinere Stämme kämpfen um ihre Anerkennung als solche. Um als Indianer-Stamm anerkannt zu werden, müssen die Antragsteller ihre indianische Herkunft über viele Generationen nachweisen.
Dies ist oft schwierig bis unmöglich. Im Bundesstaat Virginia beispielsweise wurden Anfang des In South Carolina erhielten am Februar die Pee Dee und die Waccamaw die staatliche Anerkennung.
So waren indianische Gemeinschaften von der Bundesregierung anerkannt, dazu kommen rund 70 Gruppen, die von Einzelstaaten anerkannt wurden. Dabei ging es um eine eingereichte Sammelklage, die der Regierung vorwarf, sie habe die Indianer um Milliarden-Zahlungen aus Treuhänderfonds geprellt.
Das Geld kommt 41 Indianerstämmen zugute. Die Ureinwohner hatten der Regierung Misswirtschaft bei der Verwaltung von Stammesgeldern und der Einnahmen aus der Nutzung ihrer Gebiete vorgeworfen, etwa aus dem Öl- und Gasgeschäft oder den Weiderechten.
In anderen Fällen wird noch verhandelt. Mit dem Vergleich seien historische Rechtsstreitigkeiten fair und ehrenhaft gelöst worden, sagte Justizminister Eric Holder.
Eine gemeinsame Erklärung von Justiz- und Innenministerium spricht von einem Meilenstein in der Verbesserung der Beziehungen zu den Ureinwohnern.
Die Arbeitslosigkeit ist hoch, das Gesundheitswesen schlecht und der Alkoholismus weit verbreitet. In jüngster Vergangenheit verbesserte sich die Situation in jenen Reservaten erheblich, die mit eigenen Kasinos Millionenbeträge einspielten.
Andere Stämme lehnen Kasinos mit dem Argument ab, diese würden ihre Kultur zerstören. Dazu kam ein deutlicher Anstieg in der Zahl der Arbeitsplätze in den Reservaten, zu erheblichen Teilen in vom jeweiligen Stamm geführten Unternehmen.
In Kanada wohnten Rund zwei Drittel der kanadischen Reservate befinden sich in abgelegenem Gebiet, beinahe ohne Arbeitsmöglichkeiten sowohl innerhalb der Reservate als auch in den umliegenden Regionen.
Die durchschnittliche Lebenserwartung lag in den Reservaten um mehr als sechs Jahre niedriger als in Gesamtkanada.
Ähnlich sah es bei den Tuberkuloseerkrankungen aus: In den Reservaten kamen im Jahr 34 Tuberkulose-Fälle auf In vielen Reservaten dürfen keine alkoholischen Getränke verkauft werden.
Besonders durch die Terminationspolitik nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg nahm die indianische Bevölkerung in den Städten sprunghaft zu.
Die am stärksten bevorzugten Städte waren zum einen Riesenstädte wie Los Angeles mit Die von den Vereinigten Staaten staatlich geförderte Umsiedlung in Städte hatte offiziell den Zweck, die Arbeitslosenquote in den Reservaten zu verringern.